KS Learning
Architecture

KS Learning
GCSE Vocabulary

GCSE Vocabulary

  • comprehensive
  • including or dealing with all or nearly all elements or aspects of something
    • You can only do well in exams if your answers are accurate and comprehensive including lots of important detail.
    • The manager did a comprehensive survey of his customers asking many questions of everyone who entered the store over a period of two weeks.
    • The documentary on teenager homelessness was comprehensive exploring all the reasons for it happening.
    • To prevent the art thieves from being able to sell the stolen painting, the police put together a comprehensive plan of action which included visiting all the possible buyers and sellers of fine art.
  • complacent
  • not bothering to try because of your past achievements
    • After years of winning races, the talented young swimmer started losing races after he became complacent and reduced his training.
    • She developed a complacent attitude towards her university exams after repeatedly getting the best results in her group, and ended up failing the final year of her degree.
    • He continued to win because he never allowed himself to be complacent no matter how many times he came first.
    • Charlie remained maintained a high standard at work because he kept studying after qualifying not allowing the positive feedback from his boss to make him complacent.
  • dexterity
  • skilled with tasks especially hands
    • It requires dexterity to be a good carpenter because many wooden items involve difficult, detailed work that must be done precisely and to a high standard.
    • The young, nervous head-teacher answered the angry parents' questions with the verbal dexterity of a skilled politician used to handing difficult people and awkward situations.
    • When the six year old prodigy sat down at the piano, the audience where shocked when his playing demonstrated the dexterity as an experienced adult pianist.
    • The lawyer won numerous complex cases in court due to his dexterity in examining witnesses, getting them to say exactly what he wanted them to say in front of the jury.
  • implausible
  • (of an argument or statement) not seeming reasonable or probable; failing to convince
    • George, as usual, made a series of implausible excuses to get out of his doing his english homework.
    • The evidence is so overwhelming that the claim that the world is flat, is both ridiculous and implausible.
    • I found the plot of the book implausible with people being able to read minds and come back from the dead.
    • It is implausible to suggest that the huge numbers of experienced biologists and academics have misinterpreted the evidence as showing the evolution of life on the planet.
  • apathy
  • a great lack of interest, or enthusiasm
    • The new chemistry teacher was disappointed by the apathy of his students towards science which lead to poor exam results.
    • The apathy of voters on important issues such as human rights and democracy have allowed the government to pass laws that give them unprecidented power.
    • Widespread apathy among the club members resulted in most meetings being cancelled because not enough people promised to attend.
    • Student apathy is a problem at university resulting in few students learning more than they need to obtain a degree.
  • pedantic
  • over concerned with minor details
    • Some people think that I am being pedantic when I insist that apostrophes are used correctly by students no matter what the subject.
    • The lecturer was so pedantic about the origin of every single word or phrase used in the politics essay that he made the subject tedious and boring.
    • The teacher was interested in his students producing entertaining, creative stories so was not pedantic about punctuation and spelling.
    • He felt that his friend was being pedantic when he corrected others for using 'couple' to mean a few and not its proper meaning of 'two'.
  • semantics
  • the study of the meanings of words and phrases in language
    • Because Tomas' native tongue is not English, he is often confused by the semantics and colloquialisms of English teenagers.
    • Many BBC programmess have to be remade for Amercans TV because Americans are regularly confused by the semantics of the English language.
    • The talented author played with semantics to create a frightening scene in his new book, a scene that would grip his readers and make them want to read more.
    • A good knowledge of Latin can assist students with the semantics of the English language.
  • gregarious
  • fond of company; highly sociable
    • Zebras are gregarious animals often living in herds of hundreds of zebras and other animals like Wildebeest and Grant's Gazelle.
    • Manav might be able to be gregarious if he started taking baths or showers and didn't smell so badly of old sweat, stale cigarettes, and unwashed clothing.
    • The gregarious girl spent so much time socialising with her friends that she failed to do any revision and did not pass a single exam.
    • Because killer whales are gregarious creatures living in pods up to several hundred strong, they will die of loneliness when kept on their own in captivity.
  • strife
  • a continued state of angry or bitter disagreement over issues
    • The strife between street gangs in Harlem has been the direct cause of numerous injuries and deaths of loccal young men.
    • After nearly three years of strife, the couple decided to separate to give themselves time to consider what they each wanted from the relationship.
    • He agreed to spend more time with her university friends to avoid strife between them while the children were home from boarding school.
    • Even though Manav was hurt by Jai cheating on him, he decided to say remain silent rather than causing strife between them.
  • provocative
  • causing anger or another strong reaction, especially deliberately
    • The clear and direct way that the journalist questions everything that the politicians say, is what makes her journalism not just provocative but highly informative.
    • The barrister made provocative statements in order to make the witness angry in front of the jury.
    • The teacher chose to ignore the student's provocative statements because he did not want to end up in conflict with the class so early in the day.
    • His speech was deliberately provocative hoping that his listeners would start a riot and turn on his opponents.
  • epiphany
  • a sudden moment of great revelation
    • He lived his life going to work day after day, when he had an epiphany, realising that life was too short to waste. He gave up his job and set out to travel the world.
    • After years of religious devotion, an epiphany led him to see through his beliefs and open his mind to thinking for himself about the difficult questions that life presents.
    • When I nearly died in a car accident, I experienced an ephiphany that changed my entire life for the better.
    • Jake made it his mission to share his epiphany on making money with as many people that were prepared to sit down and listen to him.
  • besotted
  • strongly infatuated, completely in love with someone and always thinking of them
    • The besotted husband waited on his wife hand and foot buying her presents, bringing her flowers, and never letting her do anything for herself.
    • Manav is besotted with George and hopes they will be happily married forever living in their own home with lots of children and a pet dog.
    • The besotted parent gave her nasty, spoilt child everything she wanted no matter how much it cost or how bad it was for her.
    • Arjun is besotted with Manav so is angry that Manav is in love with George and George is in love with Dru.
  • misnomer
  • an inaccurate name or use of a name
    • A guinea pig does not come from Guinea and is not a pig so its name is a misnomer.
    • Peanuts are not nuts, but they are related to peas and beans. Their name is a simple misnomer.
    • The scientific term, a light-year, is a misnomer as is not an amount of time but the large distance traveled by light in a single year.
    • Koala bears are not bears, and king crabs aren't crabs. The horned toad and the slow worm are actually lizards. Starfish and jellyfish aren't fish, and velvet ants are actually wasps. These are just of the animals whose names are misnomers.
  • intrepid
  • fearless, adventurous, extremely brave and no fear of dangerous situations
    • The intrepid traveler was not put off by stories of blood-thristy, head-hunting tribes, and shoals of hungry, flesh eating piranhas in the river.
    • Photographers in war zones need to be intrepid as they might be killed by a stray bullet or a deliberate bomb.
    • The intrepid firemen who rushed into the burning building without thought for their own safety, deserved the medals they received.
    • After seeing the 6 year old pick up the spider with his own hands to carry it outdoors, her mother described her as intrepid and kind when telling her friends about the event.
  • invaluable
  • extremely useful; indispensable
    • The work of Heroditus, the man known as the father of modern history, is invaluable for the understanding of the history of the Persian Empire.
    • A good dictionary is an invaluable tool for a person keen to improve their vocabulary and ability to communicate.
    • The internet is an invaluable source of information for school students writing essays on topics like the famous Shakespearean plays Macbeth, Hamlet, and Othello.
    • The eager, young detective proved to be an invaluable source of new ideas for the investigative team trying to solve the serious crime.
  • transient
  • lasting for a short time
    • Snow in the UK is transient lasting only until the winter sun comes out for two or three hours when it turns to slush and mud.
    • The transient thunder storm lasted only 20 minutes but was so violent that it took weeks to clean up the mess and damage it left in its wake.
    • Even though the lunar eclipse is a transient event, it is it generates great enthusiasm among millions of people around the world.
    • The doctor told the patient that his fever and headache were transient and that he would be fine by the end of the day.
  • canard
  • an unfounded rumour or story
    • Newspapers will often print something that they know to be a canard because the profits from increased sales are more than the costs of being sued.
    • Dru was so upset when he was rejected by Manav that he spread the canard that Manav like to wear female underwear.
    • The saying that 'an apple a day keeps the doctor away' is actually a canard as it is possible to eat apples regularly and still get sick.
    • The notion of trickle-down-economics is a canard promoted by the rich to avoid paying their fair share of tax.
  • avuncular
  • kind and friendly towards a younger person
    • My best friend's father treats me in an avuncular manner having known me from the day I was born.
    • The man's avuncular personality made him very popular with the children in the village and led to them calling him Uncle Pete.
    • The man thought that he was speaking with an avuncular tone to the teenagers but the young girl found it overly familiar and unpleasant.
    • The teacher's avuncular manner made it difficult for him to control the badly behaved class.
  • indefatigable
  • (of a person or their efforts) persisting tirelessly
    • His indefatigable determination to master mechanics meant that while he wrote the exam 5 times and failed, he passed with flying colours on the sixth time.
    • The indefatigable scientist Faraday left and impressive list of discoveries that continue to be important to understanding science.
    • Wilberforce was an indefatigable campaigner against slavery who despite the odds, ended slavery in the UK.
    • According to his records, Newton was an indefatigable reader finishing an average of a book a week in his life.
  • miscreant
  • a person who has done something wrong or unlawful
    • Manav is such a miscreant that he spends more time in the principal's office, than in the classroom.
    • To some people a hacker is a miscreant causing people to worry about the safety of their data while to others he is a hero fighting corporate capitalism.
    • The police spent weeks unsuccessfully trying to catch the miscreant who was letting people's tyres down in the neighbourhood.
    • Even though the boy was only 8 years old, he was already a well-known miscreant with a long list of misdeeds to his name.
  • sympathy
  • feelings of sorrow for someone else's misfortune
    • The widow received numerous letters of sympathy and bunches of flowers after the sudden death of her husband.
    • The coach had no sympathy for the injured team player because he had warned him repeatedly about the need to play with the correct equipment.
    • In order to raise money for the accident victims, it is necessary to demonstrate clearly why they deserve sympathy.
    • The sight of a suffering animal or a crying child will evoke sympathy from the toughest person no matter how hard they resist.
  • demagogue
  • a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires and prejudices rather than by using rational argument
    • Hitler's speeches provide overwhelming evidence that he was a demagogue, manipulating the Germans to achieve his own goals.
    • It far easier for a leader to be a demagogue than to challenge people's prejudices and change their thinking.
    • Some say Donald Trump is a demagogue exploiting people's prejudices rather than a man who is too stupid to see through his own claims.
    • Stalin was a tyrant and not a demagogue as he simply killed people who disagreed with him rather than using populism to outwit them.
  • empathy
  • the ability to understand and share the feelings of another
    • He finds it difficult to deal with social situations that become awkward because he lacks empathy for other people.
    • The serial killer showed no empathy for his victims as he described calmly how they begged for their lives or screamed in pain all of which had no impact on him whatsoever.
    • As a recovered drug addict himself, he showed a great deal of empathy to patients in the rehabilitation clinic.
    • Thomas was able to empathise with immigrants finding it hard to settle in the UK because his parents had been refugees that fled a war-torn country.
  • xenophobia
  • dislike of or prejudice against people of other countries or groups
    • Due to the increasing xenophobia of the public, fewer foreigners were visiting the country to work or as tourists.
    • Teaching children about other cultures and introducing them to people from them, helps to reduce xenophobia.
    • The far right are guilty of xenophobia with their hatred of people of other cultures, races, and backgrounds from what they perceive as what it is to be English.
    • Nationalism and xenophobia so often go hand in hand, with their proponents claiming they are not prejudiced but true patriots standing up for their country and culture.
  • concur
  • to be of the same opinion; to agree
    • After listening to the facts and thinking through your arguments, I concur that starting a petition is the best course of action to follow.
    • He did not concur with his teacher on how many times he had been absent from class.
    • At the end of WWW I, the German people did not concur with the terms the Treaty of Versailles imposed on them.
    • Jack and Jill concurred that going up the hill was the best course of action to fetch the pail of water because the pail would not come down the hill on its own.
  • circumspect
  • wary and unwilling to take risks; cautious
    • It is wise to be circumspect about buying shares as it is both possible to lose as well as make a lot of money.
    • He acted in a circumspect manner, carefully checking each of the promises made by the businessman.
    • Sir Wooldrige's circumspect approach in political matters, made him a superb diplomat.
    • A good scientist is circumspect about making claims, first collecting large amount of objective data from numerous carefully constructed tests.
  • insinuate
  • suggest or hint (something bad) in an indirect and unpleasant way
    • Alisha could tell from the teacher's comments that she was insinuating that she had cheated on the test again.
    • During questioning at the police station, the police insinuated that John had stolen the money and was lying to them.
    • It is better to ask direct questions if you suspect a person of dishonesty than to insinuate that she is lying.
    • Donald Trump insinuated that the bold reporter was too stupid to understand the science behind his proposal.
  • rendezvous
  • meeting at an agreed time & place
    • Dru and Manav rendezvous at a quiet cafe in the heart of Kingston for lunch to celebrate their love undisturbed by friends.
    • The football team decided to rendezvous at their captain's home before the match to discuss the best strategy for winning the game.
    • The Bentall Centre is a popular rendezvous point for teenagers on weekends when they finally get out of bed.
    • During the war, spies would often exchange information during a rendezvous in a carefully chosen location where they were unlikely to be noticed by anyone.
  • disparage
  • criticize in a way that shows you consider them of little or no worth
    • Political leaders tend to disparage their opponents rather than focusing on the merits of their own policies.
    • The suffragettes were cruelly disparaged by the male-dominated establishment during their courageous fight for the vote for women.
    • Donald Trump spends a lot of time disparaging his critics rather than responding to them with rational arguments and facts.
    • The teacher chose to disparage the student rather than providing constructive feedback on the work he had handed in for homework.
  • cynical
  • believing that people are motivated purely by self-interest
    • Most people took a cynical view believing that Oscar only donated the money to draw attention to himself.
    • I am not being cynical when I say that the only reason Arshpreet is ever nice to anyone, is when he wants something.
    • Some people said that Alisha's story about her sick grandmother, was a cynical ploy to avoid getting into trouble for yet again failing to do her homework.
    • Posh pretends to be nice but she is actually a nasty, cynical cow who thinks the worst of everyone she meets.
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  • ambivalent
  • having mixed feelings about something or someone
    • it seemed that despite weeks of campaigning to persuade the public that the new dam was worth the cost, the public remained ambivalent about the decision.
    • He did not understand his friend's ambivalence when the comments of the MP were racist ad patronising.
    • Overall, he was ambivalent about the evening since while the food had been pleasant the conversation had been banal.
    • She was ambivalent about the film finding nothing in it to really like or dislike.
  • bald
  • wholly or partly lacking hair
    • The name of the bald eagle makes absolutely no sense as it has a full head of handsome, white feathers.
    • Going bald as a man ages is a sign of great wisdom and intelligence which is why so many young men are envious.
    • No treatment has yet been discovered that will reverse baldness other than having a hair transplant as the English singer Elton John did.
    • The Irish singer Sinead O'Connor is probably the most famous woman to shave her head giving the appearance of being bald.
  • bold
  • confident, courageous, and willing to take risks
    • Some people said that it was a bold move and some said it was madness when Britney shaved her head.
    • It was not just bold but extremely brave for the elderly man to walk slowly towards the angry man pointing a loaded gun at him.
    • No-one in the class was bold enough to defy the teacher despite the fact that the punishment was unfair.
    • Nelson Mandela fought boldly against the racist system of apartheid implemented in South Africa.
  • diligent
  • hard working, taking great care and being thorough in one's work or duties
    • It is not just genius but hard, diligent work that characterises the winners of the Nobel prizes regardless of the subject.
    • For revision to be effective and produce good grades, a student must be diligent studying consistently for several days and not just the night before.
    • Tom's diligent research and clear arguments made the article insteresting and convincing
    • The lawyer won the case despite the odds being against it because of his diligent preparation.
  • impertinent
  • rude and cheeky
    • She controlled herself admirably when the impertinent smirk on his face made her want to slap him hard again and again.
    • George's impertinence and disrespect towards customers, lost him four jobs in a row within a single summer.
    • The defendent's impertinent replies to the barrister turned the whole jury against him, risking a conviction despite the fact that he was innocent.
    • The boy thought his comments were clever and funny but they were actually impertinent showing a lack of respect for his teacher who was trying to teach a sensitive topic.
  • inevitable
  • certain to happen; unavoidable
    • Vomiting or a severe hangover are inevitable for anyone whose chooses to drink large quantities of Konyagi quickly.
    • With idiots like Donald Trump making big decisions on the very serious matter of climate change, great environmental damage is inevitable around the globe.
    • The inevitable outcome of failing to listen to what people think and feel is that the political party will lose the next general election.
    • He felt that his failure was inevitable because everyone of his competitors was far better prepared and more talented than he was.
  • eligible
  • meets the appropriate conditions
    • He was not eligible for a discount on his entry ticket because the giraffe centre in Karen only gives student discounts to students 25 years old or under.
    • The young man was extremely angry that he would not be eligible to vote in the next election because his birthday fell a week after the election.
    • It was not easy to decide who should be eligible to enter the competition with so many people wanting to participate.
    • The man was not eligible to stand for election as mayor because of his conviction for fraud the year before.
  • jubilant
  • feeling great happiness and triumph
    • The rowing team were jubilant when against the odds the beat the favourites to win the competition.
    • He heard jubilant shouting and singing coming from the stadium so assumed that the local football team had won the match.
    • After negotiating for a full week, the investment team were rightly jubilant about acquiring the company at such an excellent price.
    • I was jubilant when Parliament banned fox hunting putting an end to terrified foxes being ripped to pieces by blood thirsty hounds.
  • notorious
  • famous for something bad
    • The notorious drug lord lived his life in fear, never knowing when he might be arrested for his crimes which included smuggling and murder as well as drug dealing.
    • Ronnie Biggs, the notorious train robber, lived his for 36 years as a fugitive in Brazil after he escaped from prison.
    • Robin Hood is notorious for stealing from the rich to give to the poor for many years hiding in Nottingham forest with his band of men.
    • Harlem has a fascinating history and vibrant culture but is seldom visited because it is an area notorious for crime.
  • vet
  • make a careful and critical examination of
    • Secret services like the FBI and MI6 have to vet job applicants very carefully to ensure that they are not infiltrated by operatives for other countries and people unable to do the work.
    • He decided to vet each person thoroughly before asking them to join the recue team that he was putting together to feed orphans in war torn Yemen.
    • People who want to be politicians should be carefully vetted to reduce the amount of lies told to the voting public.
    • By not following the required vetting, a nurse was hired who went on to kill several patients before she was discovered.
  • subjective
  • based on opinion or emotion
    • Some people mistakenly think that the age of the earth and the universe are subjective and open to debate.
    • Poor education and logic can lead to good people confusing subjective views with established facts and well-reasoned conclusions.
    • The lawyer tried to persuade the jury that his subjective claims were in fact beyond reasonable doubt and that they should thus convict the defendant of murdering his young pregnant wife.
    • Presenting a matter as subjective when it is clearly not, is a dishonest strategy used by many policians including Donald Trump and Boris Johnson.
  • consistent
  • (of people or activities) done in the same way over time
    • Donald Trump is seldom consistent, contradicting himself multiple times in a single speech.
    • Because the boy read consistently setting aside an hour a day for reading, he had a wide vocabulary which he used effectively.
    • The man did not know what his son wanted for Christmas because the boy changed his mind every day, sometimes every hour, instead of presenting a consistent list of gift requests.
    • It is important for a teacher to be consistent about behaviour that is and isn't allowed by pupils in the classroom during lessons.
  • mundane
  • very ordinary and therefore not interesting; dull and unexciting
    • She chose the job that paid less because the better paid job meant she would be doing mundane tasks each day.
    • Being in Kenya with Porridge and Rice cannot be called mundane what with going on safari, white water rafting, and working in the schools in the Nairobi slums.
    • Alisha's mundane life is just one of many reasons that she no real friends and has to sit talking her dolls for company.
    • The essay wasn't bad and it wasn't brilliant but just utterly mundane with no redeeming features at all.
  • adverse
  • having negative or harmful effect, or being harmful or negative
    • The adverse consequences of smoking are proven so no smoker can indulge their habit without knowing the possible health problems.
    • She was surprised by his strong adverse reaction to the suggestion that they should elope right away.
    • Natural selection is the result of adverse conditions eliminating weaker individuals from the breeding pool.
    • Despite adverse criticism of the book when it was first published, it went on to become a classic in the world of English literature.
  • anecdote
  • a short account of an incident or event, often interesting or amusing
    • It took him forever to tell his holiday anecdote to his patient friends even though they thought it was a particularly boring story.
    • It is customary for the speeches at a wedding to include an amusing anecdote about the bride or bridegroom.
    • The reason Stephen Fry is so interesting to listen to, is that he seems to have an endless string of anecdotes ranging from hilarious to scary.
    • Even though he insisted that it was true, the anecdote about the boy and the dolphin did not seem plausible to his friend.
  • objective
  • not based on opinion or emotion
    • If a jury focuses on the facts of a case, it should have no difficulty reaching an objective conclusion on the innocence or guilt of the person on trial.
    • It is essential for scientists to put aside any emotions and remain objective at all times when reviewing data produced by an experiment.
    • It was understandable that the witness found it difficult to be objective when answering police questions as it was his sister that had been murdered.
    • An objective assessment of the consequences of smoking can lead to only one conclusion - it is not worth the time, effort, and money.
  • flippant
  • not showing a serious or respectful attitude
    • The teenage boy accused of stealing from his local corner store did himself no favours with his flippant answers when in the witness box.
    • It was clear from her flippant attitude that she did not realise that the complaints were so serious that she could be fired on the spot.
    • Students who make flippant comments to get a laugh from their friends, seldom realise how poor an impression they are making on their teacher until they need a reference.
    • She was angry with her flippant response because he had asked a sincere question about her health.
  • juxtapose
  • put close together to contrast or compare
    • He decided to juxtapose a picture of himself before he lost the weight with one when he had lost the weight, to show how much he had lost.
    • The book juxtaposed happy and sad events to illustrate the how difficult Che Guevara's life was until his early death at 39.
    • The film drew attention to poverty in the Kenyan slums by the juxtaposition of homes in the suburbs of England with homes in the Nairobi slums.
    • In the film 'A Clockwork Orange' Kubrik juxtaposes elegant music by Beethoven with crude violence to stress the joy the youths find in it.
  • proxy
  • A proxy is a person or thing that is acting or being used in the place of someone or something else
    • The war in Afghanistan was a proxy war of the Cold War between the US and the USSR.
    • Jack could not be present on voting day so appointed Jill as his proxy rather than miss out on voting.
    • Syria is being used as a proxy battlefield between the US and Russia who continue to pour millions into the conflict.
    • Shareholders have until next Friday evening to register their proxy votes or forfeit their right to have a say on salary increases for the board.
  • banal
  • boring, ordinary, and not original
    • I was hoping for some helpful guidance but the advice of the teacher was banal ranging from work harder to put the time in.
    • Firemen spend most of each day on banal tasks from polishing their boots to ironing their uniforms and not out fighting fires and saving lives.
    • The student's answers in his history paper were so banal that the best the marker could do was to award him an average mark.
    • So much journalism is too scared to offend that it ends up being banal and worthless.
  • facetious
  • not serious about a serious subject, in an attempt to be funny or to appear clever
    • His comments about charity were not entirely facetious as he wanted the group to think about how they might help.
    • He resorted to being facetious rather than have a serious conversation about their plans for the future.
    • The councillor found it very difficult to help the couple because of one partner's endless facetious remarks.
    • When she started to cry, he regretted his facetious remark and spent an hour apologising.
  • remote
  • far away from the main centres of population
    • There is good reason to believe that there are still underdiscovered people living in remote parts of the Amazon rainforest, hiding from the rest of the world.
    • Napoleon was banished to St Helena, a remote island in the mid-Atlantic 1,950 km from the west coast of Africa and 2.900km from South America.
    • The idea of sitting for hours waiting for trains to collect train engine numbers was so remote to her that she could not understand his joy each time he collected a train engine number new to him.
    • Their cultural practices come from a time so remote that neither anthropologists nor historians can put a date on it.
  • bigotry
  • holding strong, unreasonable prejudices or opinions
    • People hiding their bigotry behind culture or religion is not a new phenomenon but as old as time itself and still just as disgusting and unacceptable.
    • The bigotry of the far right in politics continues to challenge cowardly leaders who do not act decisively to stop it from spreading and promoting ideas like racial superiority.
    • The religious bigotry and arrogance of Spanish catholics led to the destruction of thriving South American cultures that had exhisted for thousands of years.
    • The bigotry of Donald Trump and his followers has damaged Amrican politics in a way that will take years possibly generations to eradicate.
  • infer
  • to reason or deduce from evidence
    • While he did not come out and say that he was not interested, I could infer from his hesitation and the look on his face that he did not really want to go to the pub.
    • It is frequently possible to infer the meaning of a new word by considering the way it has been used in a sentence and by whom.
    • The teacher was able to infer that the student had done no work on the subject from his weak answers to simple questions in class and his poor exam results in the summer.
    • By spending hours observing animals and conducting some very simple experiments, Charles Darwin was able to infer that the process driving evolution is natural selection.
  • surmise
  • to suppose with little to no evidence
    • When politicians surmise, they speak as if what they are saying is well-established fact, proven and unquestionable to stop people questioning.
    • Until a proper study is done following the scientific method carefully, the scientist can only surmise about the relationship between eating disorders and anxiety.
    • The journalist had a bad habit of confusing surmise with knowledge in his articles misleading his readers into thinking things are known when they are not.
    • He surmised that the mafia had threatened the witness when he suddenly changed his mind about testifying against the mafia boss.
  • expedient
  • helpful, convenient or necessary in a particular situation but sometimes flawed, difficult or immoral
    • He decided that while he did not like or trust the man, it was expedient to work with him for the short term.
    • While asking the lady about her past again would upset and offend her, it was expedient if he were to understand what happened the day her son died.
    • While others condemned his actions, he considered it expedient to pay the bribe because otherwise the children could die of starvation.
    • The police could not find solid evidence so they decided that it was expedient to allow one gang member to walk free if he testified against the others.
  • trivial
  • of little value or importance
    • Instead of focusing on the points the student made in his english essay, he chose to comment on trivial aspects of what he had written like the use of pen colour.
    • The judge formed the habit of dismissing complaints from children as trivial rather than research them before coming to a conclusion.
    • While the details of the accusation against the teacher seemed trivial, it ended his career because no one trusted him any more.
    • The differences between the species of snails may seem trivial to the non-specialist but for the biologist trying to understand how they evolved, they are important clues.
  • tedious
  • painfully long or boring
    • Revising using the technique read-cover-repeat may be incredibly tedious but it is proven that it is the most effective way of learning and getting good results in exams.
    • Even though the chemistry teacher knew his subject really well, his lessons were so tedious that his students spent their time in his class yawning frequently and staring out the window.
    • No-one wanted to do the tedious task of countin the number of ants in the field even though it was an essential part of the review.
    • Some people enjoy doing the ironing but I find it incredibly tedious standing over an irorning board for hours.
  • arbitrary
  • for no good reason
    • Because Dru's teacher disliked him, the same as everyone else, she came up with a series of arbitrary punishments to make his life miserable.
    • Because she didn't have the time to watch potential candidates play, Jennifer's choice of team members was arbitrary based on the clothes they were wearing on the day.
    • Student after student complained to the head of year about the arbitrary applicatiion of the school rules by the sixth form prefects.
    • His choice of destination seemed entirely arbitrary when he could not offer a single good reason for his sudden decision to travel to New Zealand in the summer.
  • enigma
  • a mystery
    • Sadly, the identity of Jack the Ripper remains an enigma to this day despite repeated attempts to discover the name of the man who murdered so many 'working' women.
    • The appeal of the game of cricket will always be an enigma to me no matter how hard I try to understand it.
    • Rather than explain the trick to the audience, he allowed it to remain an enigma hoping that it would keep them think about it long after the show was over.
    • It is impossible to know whether the enigma of what happened before the Big Bang will be solved in my lifetime, although I am confident that an inspired physicist will oneday solve the puzzle.
  • procrastinate
  • to keep delaying
    • Alisha used every exuse in the book to procrastinate rather than facing the fact that she smells and having a shower for the sake of those around her.
    • Despite her wise tutor advising her not to, Amber continues to procrastinate when it comes to learning her words before her lesson each week.
    • No matter how unpleasant a task might be, it will not get easier when you procrastinate, in fact, the exact opposite is true.
    • He handed in his assignment late because instead of sitting down and doing the word, he had to rush it after procrastinating many times.
  • serendipity
  • the making of fortunate discoveries by accident; the fact of finding pleasant or useful things by chance
    • Winning the lottery does not involve skill no matter what strategy is adopted, but pure serendipity.
    • The celebrity photographer relied on serendipity instead of the hard work of spending hours tracking his targets.
    • Serendipity led to the couple to their dream home when their car broke down in the country and they knocked on the door of the nearest house to ask for help.
    • The serendipitous discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Alexander Fleming saved millions of lives.
  • profound
  • deep or intense
    • Maxim and Manav's profound love blossomed when they shared a moment as their arms touched over a difficult Pythagoras question.
    • His profound distrust of the police meant that he felt he had nowhere to go when he was attacked by thugs simply because he is black.
    • There was profound sadness around the world when Nelson Mandela died reflecting the affection and respect that so many people felt for the anti-Apartheid campaigner.
    • Long words and complicated sentences can be used to make the most simple subject seem very profound.
  • precocious
  • (disapproving) A precocious child behaves as if they are much older than they are; (approving) showing mental development or achievement much earlier than usual.
    • She was a precocious child, completing her A levels at the age of 12, and starting university at 13.
    • Mozart is remembered as much for his work in later life as for his precocious early years when he showed skill.
    • The precocious little child thought that she knew better than anyone else and needed to be put in her place.
    • While Jack is extremely bright, he is far too precocious for his age which people around him find annoying.
  • amiable
  • having or displaying a friendly and pleasant manner
    • Young Terence had an amiable personality with his broad smile and willingness to help whenever asked.
    • He struggled to make a success of running the security business because of his amiable, kind-hearted personality.
    • He greeted his guests with an amiable smile and kind words, making them feel at ease from the outset of the three day event exploring team working.
    • There is no more amiable man than Xavier Richards which is why he is liked by everyone who works or socialises with him.
  • cumulative
  • increasing by one addition after another
    • The cumulative effect of the wind, cold and rain was dangerous driving conditions, such that there was a marked increase in accidents.
    • After ignoring all the payment reminders, he ended up with a cumulative bill of over £1000 because of the cumulative effect of court, interest and late fees on a £140 fine.
    • The cumulative effect of his temper tantrums was that no-one wanted him on their team for the competition.
    • As lead compounds are strong cumulative poisons, lead pipes and paints are now illegal and must be replaced by a specialist.
  • abhor
  • regard with great disgust and deep hatred
    • After living in South Africa, I abhor all forms of discrimination on any grounds including race, gender, sexual orientation, and religion.
    • The Nazis under Hitler and his team, taught people to abhor Jewish people by manipulating the public perception of innocent people to see them as evil and sub-human.
    • Most religions abhor logic and free throught insisting that adherents place complete trust in the dogma taught by the leaders of the faith.
    • I abhor fox hunting because of the cruelty involved when the dogs catch the fox tearing a live animal to pieces.
  • fabricate
  • invent (something) in order to deceive
    • Donald Trump is a liar but not a good liar as he is unable to even fabricate a moderately convincing story.
    • People fall for fabricated stories all the time because the stories confirm their prejudices and biases so they simply accept them as true.
    • Al Capone did not need to fabricate evidence to cover up his crimes because the witenesses that he did not kill were terrified of dying so lied to cover up for him.
    • The Brexit referendum was won by people comfortable with fabricating and misrepresenting 'evidence' to support the notion of the UK leaving the EU.
  • furtive
  • attempting to avoid notice or attention; suggestive of guilty nervousness
    • furtive
    • furtive
    • furtive
    • furtive
  • contrast
  • the state of being strikingly different from something else in juxtaposition or close association
    • contrast
    • contrast
    • contrast
    • contrast
  • morose
  • sullen and ill-tempered
    • morose
    • morose
    • morose
    • morose
  • colloquial
  • (of language) used in ordinary or familiar conversation; not formal or literary
    • colloquial
    • colloquial
    • colloquial
    • colloquial
  • insatiable
  • (of an appetite or desire) impossible to satisfy
    • insatiable
    • insatiable
    • insatiable
    • insatiable
  • paraphrase
  • a rewording of something written or spoken
    • paraphrase
    • paraphrase
    • paraphrase
    • paraphrase
  • despot
  • a ruler or other person who holds absolute power, typically one who exercises it in a cruel or oppressive way
    • despot
    • despot
    • despot
    • despot
  • elated
  • extremely, extremely happy
    • elated
    • elated
    • elated
    • elated
  • eloquent
  • fluent and persuasive in speaking or writing
    • eloquent
    • eloquent
    • eloquent
    • eloquent
  • haughty
  • arrogantly superior and disdainful
    • haughty
    • haughty
    • haughty
    • haughty
  • implicit
  • suggested though not directly expressed
    • implicit
    • implicit
    • implicit
    • implicit
  • analogy
  • comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification
    • analogy
    • analogy
    • analogy
    • analogy
  • novice
  • a person new to and inexperienced in a job or situation
    • novice
    • novice
    • novice
    • novice
  • recite
  • repeat aloud or declaim (a poem or passage) from memory before an audience
    • recite
    • recite
    • recite
    • recite
  • quaint
  • attractively unusual or old-fashioned
    • quaint
    • quaint
    • quaint
    • quaint
  • rash
  • acting or done without careful consideration of the possible consequences
    • rash
    • rash
    • rash
    • rash
  • distinguish
  • recognize or treat (someone or something) as different
    • distinguish
    • distinguish
    • distinguish
    • distinguish
  • irony
  • the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect
    • irony
    • irony
    • irony
    • irony
  • evaluate
  • form an idea of the amount, number, or value of; assess
    • evaluate
    • evaluate
    • evaluate
    • evaluate
  • onomatopoeia
  • the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named
    • onomatopoeia
    • onomatopoeia
    • onomatopoeia
    • onomatopoeia
  • personification
  • the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something non-human, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form
    • personification
    • personification
    • personification
    • personification
  • confidant
  • someone to whom private matters are told
    • confidant
    • confidant
    • confidant
    • confidant
  • oxymoron
  • a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction
    • oxymoron
    • oxymoron
    • oxymoron
    • oxymoron
  • repugnant
  • extremely distasteful; unacceptable
    • repugnant
    • repugnant
    • repugnant
    • repugnant
  • clandestine
  • conducted with or marked by hidden aims or methods
    • clandestine
    • clandestine
    • clandestine
    • clandestine
  • enmity
  • a state of deep-seated ill-will
    • enmity
    • enmity
    • enmity
    • enmity
  • feral
  • wild and menacing
    • feral
    • feral
    • feral
    • feral
  • forsake
  • leave someone who needs or counts on you; leave in the lurch
    • forsake
    • forsake
    • forsake
    • forsake
  • coerce
  • to cause to do through pressure or necessity
    • coerce
    • coerce
    • coerce
    • coerce
  • truculent
  • defiantly aggressive
    • truculent
    • truculent
    • truculent
    • truculent
  • assert
  • state a fact or belief confidently and forcefully
    • assert
    • assert
    • assert
    • assert
  • meticulous
  • showing great attention to detail; very careful and precise
    • meticulous
    • meticulous
    • meticulous
    • meticulous
  • inhibit
  • hinder, restrain, or prevent (an action or process)
    • inhibit
    • inhibit
    • inhibit
    • inhibit
  • embezzle
  • appropriate fraudulently to one's own use
    • embezzle
    • embezzle
    • embezzle
    • embezzle
  • connive
  • form intrigues (for) in an underhand manner
    • connive
    • connive
    • connive
    • connive
  • debase
  • make impure by adding a foreign or inferior substance
    • debase
    • debase
    • debase
    • debase
  • decry
  • express strong disapproval of
    • decry
    • decry
    • decry
    • decry
  • demure
  • affectedly shy especially in a playful or provocative way
    • demure
    • demure
    • demure
    • demure
  • deride
  • treat or speak of with contempt
    • deride
    • deride
    • deride
    • deride
  • nuance
  • a subtle difference in or shade of meaning, expression, or sound
    • nuance
    • nuance
    • nuance
    • nuance
  • insular
  • relating to or characteristic of or situated on an island
    • insular
    • insular
    • insular
    • insular
  • gluttony
  • habitual eating to excess
    • gluttony
    • gluttony
    • gluttony
    • gluttony
  • hypocrisy
  • pretending to have qualities or beliefs that you do not have
    • hypocrisy
    • hypocrisy
    • hypocrisy
    • hypocrisy
  • impudent
  • improperly forward or bold
    • impudent
    • impudent
    • impudent
    • impudent
  • incisive
  • demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions
    • incisive
    • incisive
    • incisive
    • incisive
  • indolent
  • disinclined to work or exertion
    • indolent
    • indolent
    • indolent
    • indolent
  • inept
  • generally incompetent and ineffectual
    • inept
    • inept
    • inept
    • inept
  • infamy
  • a state of extreme dishonor
    • infamy
    • infamy
    • infamy
    • infamy
  • fractious
  • easily irritated or annoyed
    • fractious
    • fractious
    • fractious
    • fractious
  • umbrage
  • a feeling of anger caused by being offended
    • umbrage
    • umbrage
    • umbrage
    • umbrage
  • habitual
  • done constantly or as a habit
    • habitual
    • habitual
    • habitual
    • habitual
  • lithe
  • moving and bending with ease
    • lithe
    • lithe
    • lithe
    • lithe
  • lurid
  • glaringly vivid and graphic; marked by sensationalism
    • lurid
    • lurid
    • lurid
    • lurid
  • maverick
  • someone who exhibits independence in thought and action
    • maverick
    • maverick
    • maverick
    • maverick
  • maxim
  • a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits
    • maxim
    • maxim
    • maxim
    • maxim
  • inept
  • having or showing no skill; clumsy
    • inept
    • inept
    • inept
    • inept
  • panacea
  • hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases
    • panacea
    • panacea
    • panacea
    • panacea
  • parody
  • composition that imitates or misrepresents a style
    • parody
    • parody
    • parody
    • parody
  • penchant
  • a strong liking
    • penchant
    • penchant
    • penchant
    • penchant
  • perusal
  • reading carefully with intent to remember
    • perusal
    • perusal
    • perusal
    • perusal
  • plethora
  • extreme excess
    • plethora
    • plethora
    • plethora
    • plethora
  • refurbish
  • make brighter and prettier
    • refurbish
    • refurbish
    • refurbish
    • refurbish
  • repudiate
  • refuse to acknowledge, ratify, or recognize as valid
    • repudiate
    • repudiate
    • repudiate
    • repudiate
  • rife
  • excessively abundant
    • rife
    • rife
    • rife
    • rife
  • vociferous
  • conspicuously and offensively loud
    • vociferous
    • vociferous
    • vociferous
    • vociferous
  • alliteration
  • use of the same consonant at the beginning of each word
    • alliteration
    • alliteration
    • alliteration
    • alliteration
  • assonance
  • the repetition of similar vowels in successive words
    • assonance
    • assonance
    • assonance
    • assonance
  • cliche
  • a trite or obvious remark
    • cliche
    • cliche
    • cliche
    • cliche
  • imperative
  • requiring attention or action
    • imperative
    • imperative
    • imperative
    • imperative
  • infamous
  • definition
    • infamous
    • infamous
    • infamous
    • infamous
  • audacity
  • a small or moderate or token amount
    • audacity
    • audacity
    • audacity
    • audacity
  • myriad
  • a large indefinite number
    • myriad
    • myriad
    • myriad
    • myriad
  • nadir
  • the lowest point of anything
    • nadir
    • nadir
    • nadir
    • nadir
  • arcane
  • requiring secret or mysterious knowledge
    • arcane
    • arcane
    • arcane
    • arcane
  • coherent
  • marked by an orderly and consistent relation of parts
    • coherent
    • coherent
    • coherent
    • coherent
  • brazen
  • unrestrained by convention or propriety
    • brazen
    • brazen
    • brazen
    • brazen
  • brusque
  • marked by rude or peremptory shortness
    • brusque
    • brusque
    • brusque
    • brusque
  • cajole
  • influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering
    • cajole
    • cajole
    • cajole
    • cajole
  • alacrity
  • brisk and cheerful readiness
    • alacrity
    • alacrity
    • alacrity
    • alacrity
  • narcissistic
  • having an inflated idea of one's own importance
    • narcissistic
    • narcissistic
    • narcissistic
    • narcissistic
  • persona
  • a personal facade that one presents to the world
    • persona
    • persona
    • persona
    • persona
  • mere
  • definition
    • mere
    • mere
    • mere
    • mere
  • redolent
  • definition
    • redolent
    • redolent
    • redolent
    • redolent
  • pivotal
  • definition
    • pivotal
    • pivotal
    • pivotal
    • pivotal
  • preternatural
  • definition
    • preternatural
    • preternatural
    • preternatural
    • preternatural
  • salient
  • conspicuous, prominent, or important
    • salient
    • salient
    • salient
    • salient
  • staid
  • characterized by dignity and propriety
    • staid
    • staid
    • staid
    • staid
  • impudent
  • not showing due respect for another person; impertinent
    • impudent
    • impudent
    • impudent
    • impudent
  • superfluous
  • more than is needed, desired, or required
    • superfluous
    • superfluous
    • superfluous
    • superfluous
  • taciturn
  • habitually reserved and uncommunicative
    • taciturn
    • taciturn
    • taciturn
    • taciturn
  • venerable
  • profoundly honored
    • venerable
    • venerable
    • venerable
    • venerable

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