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GCSE Maths

GCSE Maths

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The Number Story (Once Upon a Sheep)

natural numbers - positive whole numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, to infinity
counting numbers - zero and positive whole numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, to infinity
integers - positive and negative whole numbers plus zero : negative infinity ... -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, to positive infinity
real numbers - all numbers on a number line

even numbers - divide by two exactly e.g. 2, 4, 6, 8
odd numbers - do not divide by two exactlye.g. 11, 13, 15, 17
prime numbers - have only two factors, one and themselves e.g. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11. Note that 1 is not a prime number because it has only one factor
surds - the root of a prime number or the product of different primes
fractions - a portion of a whole
square numbers - a number multiplied by itself produces a square number e.g. 4, 9, 16
cube numbers - a number multiplied by itself three times produces a cube number e.g. 8, 27, 64

factor - a number that divide exactly into another number eg. 3 is a factor of 6
multiple - a number in the timetable of another number eg. 12 is a multiple of 6
highest common factor - the largest number that divides into two or more numbers exactly eg. 6 is the HCF of 24 and 30 (HCF)
lowest common multiple - the smallest number that two or more numbers divide into exactly eg. 120 is the LCM of 24 and 30 (LCM)

rational numbers - a rational number is any number that can be expressed as a fraction p/q where p and q are integers. Integers are rational numbers as they can be written over 1
irrational numbers - an irrational number cannot be written as a fraction. For example, the square root of 2 is an irrational number because it cannot be written as a ratio of two integers

SI Prefixes

Index Symbol Name
1012 T tera
109 G giga
106 M mega
103 k kilo
102 h hecto
101 da deca
base unit
10-1 d deci
10-2 c centi
10-3 m milli
10-6 µ micro
10-9 n nano
10-12 p pico

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