KS Learning
Architecture

KS Learning
English Language Exercises

English Language Exercises

The English Language exercises on this page are for secondary school up to and including year 11. They are provided free of charge by KS Learning for anyone teaching pupils at home or in school. They may not be used for commericial purposes.

  • Why was women's football banned?
  • by BBC News Magazine, 12 December 2014

    Women's football was huge during World War One, drawing crowds of 53,000 even after the war had ended. So why did it disappear so dramatically?

    Lily Parr kicked a shot so hard she once broke the arm of a professional male goalkeeper. She also earned the distinction of being the first woman to be sent off in an official football match for fighting. She scored more than 1,000 goals during her 31-year-playing career. Of those, 34 were in her first season when she was aged just 14.

    Her team, the Dick Kerr Ladies shown in the picture above, was made up of 11 factory workers from Preston. They went on to become international celebrities and the biggest draw in world football. They remain the most successful women's team of all time.

    But these were also exceptional times. WW1 was being fought and any man fit enough to play football had been sent to fight on the frontline. Back home women not only took on their jobs, they also took their places on the football field.

    Women's football was already established but up until WW1 it hadn't been well received. This all changed when the Football League suspended all of its matches at the end of the 1914/15 season.

    As a generation of young men signed up to serve King and country, so too did the women that were left behind. They answered the call, with hundreds of thousands taking on traditional male roles previously considered too dangerous for women like the munitions factory girl.

    The female workers converged upon the various factories that sprung up across the country, forming strong friendships on the factory floor that spilled over on to the playing fields on their breaks. Informal kick-abouts became a popular pastime for the women and this was not missed by factory management. An activity that was previously considered unsuitable for the delicate female frame was heartily encouraged as good for health, well-being and morale.

    As the war progressed the women's game became more formalised, with football teams emerging from the munitions factories. Initially, the novelty of women playing football was used to raise money for war charities, with crowds flocking to see the so-called munitionettes take on teams of injured soldiers and women from other factories.

    As more teams cropped up, people started to enjoy the matches for the skill and ability of the women, rather than the initial humorous spectacle. Games still raised money for charities.

    The most famous team was the Dick Kerr Ladies FC from Preston. Founded in 1917, their first match drew a crowd of 10,000 people. By 1920, a Boxing Day match between them and St Helen's Ladies was watched by 53,000 spectators with another 14,000 locked outside Goodison Park. Jennie Morgan is said to have gone straight from her wedding to play a match - she scored twice.

    With the war now over, a nation devastated by the loss of so many attempted to put itself back together. One by one, the factories closed and women who had been galvanised and liberated during wartime, found themselves being quietly shunted back into domestic life, returned to their "right and proper place" in society.

    Football was no longer a health benefit, it was now seen by top physicians, such as Dr Mary Scharlieb of Harley Street, as the "most unsuitable game, too much for a woman's physical frame".

    Despite these warnings, the Dick Kerr Ladies were still the leading team in Britain. Their popularity reached its height in 1921, with big crowds wanting to see them play. However, this "golden era" of women's football was to be short lived.

    On 5 December 1921 the FA cited strong opinions about football's unsuitability for females. It called on clubs belonging to the associations "to refuse the use of their grounds for such matches". The ban changed the course of the women's game forever.

    Some teams continued to play public matches for a while. In 1937, the Dick Kerr Ladies played Edinburgh City Girls in the "Championship of Great Britain". Lily Parr became one of the greatest scorers in English history, netting more than 1,000 goals during a 31-year career. However, the women's game was soon overshadowed by the return and growth of the male game.

    In 1971 the FA finally lifted the ban on women's football. In the same year, UEFA recommended the women's game should be taken under the control of the national associations. This move signalled the start of a female football revival in across the world.

    The first official European Championship was held in Sweden in 1984 with the inaugural World Cup in 1991. Women's football is again a global phenomenon. At the 2012 Olympic Final at Wembley Stadium between the USA and Japan, a record-breaking crowd of over 83,000 was in attendance. It has taken the current generation nearly 43 years to achieve something remotely close to the success of the women's teams of WW1.


  • 1. At what age did Lily Kerr end her career?

  • 2. Who is shown in the picture?

  • 3. Why do you think the author of the piece include the fact that Lily Parr kicked a shot so hard she once broke the arm of a professional male goalkeeper?

  • 4. What words in the passage show that the Dick Kerr Ladies were very popluar?

  • 5. What action gave women's football its big break?

  • 6. Why were the war years "exceptional times"?

  • 7. What traditional male roles did women take on and why?

  • 8. What was the call that women answered?

  • 9. Use the word "converge" in a sentence that clearly illustrates its meaning.

  • 10. What was the role of factory management in the popularity of women's football?

  • 11. Did the women's teams ever play men?

  • 12. What does morale mean in the passage? And why was it important?

  • 13. What words suggest that audiences were surprised by the skill of women footballers?

  • 14. How does the passage illustrate women's love of football?

  • 15. In what way did the war liberate women?

  • 16. What returned women to their "right and proper place" in society, and why does the author include this phrase in quotes?

  • 17. Explain Dr Mary Scharlieb's view on women playing football?

  • 18. What is the image "in women being quietly shunted back into domestic life"? What information does the author convey through this image?

  • 19. Describe the event that started the end of the popularity of women's football.

  • 20. What is meant by the male game overshadowing the female game?

  • 21. What does the word inaugural mean?

  • 22. What made the revival of women's football possible?

  • 23. How does women's football reflect changing social attitudes to women? What were the causes of the changes?

  • 24. How do you imagine women felt about the men returning from the war? Refer to points in the passage in your answer.

  • 25. Use your own knowledge to describe two differences between men and women's football today.

    Please feel free to use this comprehension and email info@kslearning.co.uk with any questions. Stay safe.

  • Heart of Earth's core,
  • by Rebecca Morelle, Science Correspondent, BBC News, 10 Feb 2015

    Research from China and the US suggests that the innermost core of our planet has another, distinct region at its centre. The team believes that the structure of the iron crystals there is different from those found in the outer part of the inner core.

    Without being able to drill into the heart of the Earth, its make-up is something of a mystery so instead, scientists use echoes generated by earthquakes to study the core, by analysing how they change as they travel through the different layers of our planet.

    Prof. Xiaodong Song, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign said: "The waves are bouncing back and forth from one side of the Earth to the other side of the Earth." Prof. Song and his colleagues in China say this data suggests that the Earth's inner core - a solid region that is about the size of the Moon - is made up of two parts.

    The seismic wave data suggests that crystals in the "inner inner core" are aligned in an east-to-west direction - flipped on their side, if you are looking down at our planet from high above the North Pole. Those in the "outer inner core" are lined up north to south, so vertical if peering down from the same lofty vantage point.

    Prof. Song said: "The fact we are discovering different structures at different regions of the inner core can tell us something about the long history of the Earth." The core, which lies more than 5,000km down, started to solidify about a billion years ago and continues to grow about 0.5mm a year. Heart of Earth's core, BBC News 11 February 2015

    The finding that it has crystals with a different alignment, suggests that they formed under different conditions and that our planet may have undergone a dramatic change during this period.

    Commenting on the research, Prof. Simon Redfern from the University of Cambridge said: "Probing deeper into the solid inner core is like tracing it back in time, to the beginnings of its formation.

    People have noticed differences in the way seismic waves travel through the outer parts of the inner core and its innermost reaches before, but never before have they suggested that the alignment of crystalline iron that makes up this region is completely askew compared to the outermost parts. If this is true, it would imply that something very substantial happened to flip the orientation of the core to turn the alignment of crystals in the inner core north-south as is seen today in its outer parts."

    He added that other studies suggest that the Earth's magnetic field may have undergone a change about half a billion years ago, switching between the equatorial axes and the polar axis.

    "It could be that the strange alignment Prof. Song sees in the innermost core explains the strange palaeomagnetic signatures from ancient rocks that may have been present near the equator half a billion years ago," he added. "For the moment, however, the model proposed in this paper needs testing against other ways of analysing the seismic properties of Earth's innermost core, since no other researchers have previously considered evidence for the same conclusions in their studies."


  • 1. Describe the new discovery

  • 2. What is effect of the image the "heart of the earth"?

  • 3. How are echoes used to understand the structure of the earth?

  • 4. What is a seismic wave?

  • 5. What is a "lofty vantage point"?

  • 6. What is the significance of knowing the structure of the centre of the earth?

  • 7. What is a "palaeomagnetic signature"?

  • 8. Explain what has happened to the earth's magnetic field over the last half a billion years.

  • 9. Is the article informing, persuading or arguing? Justify your answer with explanations and evidence.

  • 10. Provide a reason why the researchers come from China and the US?

  • 11. Explain the meaning of the words "alignment" and "askew" with examples.

  • 12. How is "probing deeper into the solid inner core" "like tracing it back in time".

  • 13. How does the article reflect its source, the BBC?

  • 14. Who would be the audience for this article?

  • 15. Identify and explain the image in the third paragraph.

  • 16. Write the first paragraph in the past tense.

  • 17. Why is the phrase "inner inner core" in quotes in the article?

  • 18. Why is 'Prof.' followed by a period?

  • 19. Explain whether university should be written with lower or uppercase.

    Please feel free to use this comprehension and email info@kslearning.co.uk with any questions. Stay safe.

  • Bees Declared Endangered in the U.S.
  • By Christine Dell'Amore, National Geographic, 1 October 2016

    As the legend goes, when star-crossed lovers Naupaka and Kaui knew they'd be forever separated, Naupaka took the flower from behind her ear and tore it in two pieces, keeping one and giving Kaui the other.

    As she went to the mountains, and he to the sea, the plants around them felt their sorrow, and from then on bloomed only in half-flowers.

    Such is the Hawaiian myth behind the naupaka, a beach shrub native to the islands whose flowers look like they're missing half of their petals.

    Now the plants are linked to another sad event: Their primary pollinators, a group of more than 60 yellow-faced bee species in the genus Hylaeus, are disappearing fast. So fast that on September 30, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service deemed seven Hylaeus species as endangered - the first bees ever on the list.

    In the early 1900s, yellow-faced bees were the most abundant Hawaiian insects, ranging from the coastlines to the mountains and even the subalpine slopes of Mauna Kea.

    Yet habitat loss, invasive species, and climate change have hit Hawaii's only native bees so hard that they're now one of the state's least observed pollinators. Only two known populations of H. anthracinus, one of the most studied species, remain on the island of Oahu, and a few small populations are scattered across several other islands, according to recent surveys.

    "What we saw was really alarming - the bees were doing a lot worse than we thought," says Cynthia King, an entomologist with Hawaii's Division of Forestry and Wildlife.

    In 2010, the state government stepped up efforts to learn more about the bees. Around the same time, the invertebrate nonprofit Xerces Society submitted a petition to federally protect seven yellow-faced bees. Saving these species is a "necessary part" of the White House's strategy to protect pollinators, says Xerces executive director Scott Black.

    "We should protect the rarest of the rare."

    Ignored Insects

    The six-millimeter-long, solitary bees - so named for the golden mark between the males' eyes - are the only bees from Hawaii.

    Even so, they flew largely under the radar until around 1995, when Karl Magnacca, now a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawai'i, noticed bees buzzing in his house on the Big Island. When he looked up the insects up in recent scientific literature, he came up virtually empty.

    "That was surprising, since bees in general are an important group. [Yellow-faced bees] have been ignored since the 1920s."

    Magnacca decided to do his Ph.D. on the bees, and in the process discovered ten new species, as well as mapped out where the various species live in Hawaii - "sparking a renaissance of interest in them," he says.

    The bees have possibly gone overlooked in part because they look like wasps.

    For one, they're fast - if a bee passes you, all you'll likely see is a little black squiggle, Pigpen-style, according to King, the state entomologist. The insects also have black, shiny bodies, without that classic bee fuzz.

    Deadly Invaders

    To figure out the life cycle of this little-seen insect, University of Hawai'i entomologist Jason Graham has studied - for the first time - where H. anthracinus lives and nests on Honolulu's Ka Iwi coast and in the James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge on the North Shore.

    He found that the bees like to nest in holes in coral rocks that have washed ashore or in the hollow stems of a few coastal plants. After laying eggs, females seal the holes with a type of waterproof cellophane.

    Graham has also observed an invasive bee from India - ironically from the same genus - competing with the native bees, nesting in the same plant cavities and foraging on the same flowers.

    Invasive species in general are devastating - in addition to these rival Hylaeus bees, yellow-faced bees must contend with alien ants. (Hawaii has no native ant species.)

    Highly efficient foragers and predators, ants see a yellow-faced bee nest, with its beefy larvae, "as an amazing little buffet," says King.

    Giving Bees a Boost

    By dissecting nests and measuring their sizes, as well as raising bees in the lab, Graham has developed an artificial nest box that allows bees in and keeps ants out.

    "The artificial nests are wooden blocks with pre-drilled holes that match the hole size female bees look for when home-shopping for a nest spot," he says. The cord that attaches the nest blocks to a branch is then covered with a sticky substance that prevents crawling predators, like ants, from getting inside.

    Eventually, Graham envisions placing such boxes in areas where yellow-faced bees no longer live, so that when adults emerge for the first time they'll return to the same spot to reproduce - and therefore reestablish populations.

    The boxes "may bring these bees back from the verge of extinction," he says.

    More difficult to combat are rising seas and more intense storm surges. In 2015, 40-foot waves wiped out an entire population of bees living on a rock jetty, Graham adds.

    We Can Do More

    Black acknowledges that "Hawaii is one of the toughest places to do conservation. That said, we can do more."

    For instance, the state could focus on setting aside the bees' remaining strongholds as conservation areas, ensuring they're free of development and agriculture and trying as much as possible to keep invasive species at bay.

    King is optimistic that the bees' new endangered status will strengthen plans to help the insects.

    "A lot of people think of Hawaii as a lost cause because we have so many invasive species," she says, but "we're really well positioned right now to make headway for the bee."

  • 1. What has caused the endangerment of seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bee?
  • 2. Who are Naupaka and Kaui?
  • 3. How is the flower "linked to another sad event"?
  • 4. How does the phrase "even the subalpine slopes" in paragraph 5 relate to the author's use of the word "abundant" in the same paragraph?
  • 5. Why are they called "yellow-faced" bees?
  • 6. In what ways do the bees look like wasps?
  • 7. In what ways are the invasive species from India competing with the yellow-faced bee?
  • 8. Explain the metaphor in "amazing little buffet".
  • 9. How does Jason Graham hope that his artificial nest boxes will encourage bee populations to rise?

    Please feel free to use this comprehension and email info@kslearning.co.uk with any questions. Stay safe.

  • British base jumper dies
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • New record for deepest fish
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • How the Whale got his throat
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • Kikuyu Creation Myth
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • Microbes discovered by marine drill
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • Swahili People and Language
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • Umbrella Redesign
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • xx
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • xx
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • xx
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx
  • xx
  • xx

    xx


  • 1) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 2) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 3) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 4) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

  • 5) xxx
    1. xx
    2. xx
    3. xx
    4. xx

Confidence

A good tutor can build the confidence of a learner enabling subject success

Skills

A private tutor can improve the skills a pupil needs to master a subject

Progress

Regular tutoring can drive progress and better results in school subjects

Support

Support can help students and parents make the right academic decisions